Category Archives: Part 5

Exhibition; Everyday is a new Day.

May-September 2017 Turner Contemporary Margate

Phyllida Barlow and Michael Armitage alongside the MASK prize.

This exhibition is part of the ‘Art inspiring change’ project, where Margate primary school children have been working on injecting art to neglected parts of the town. The statement is of how important creativity is and how it can empower us to make a positive change. Central Margate is one of the most deprived areas in the UK, so encouraging children within this project should set up the foundations for positive change to carry on into adulthood.

Phyllida Barlow is currently representing Britain at the Venice biennale (2017). She makes large sculptures from everyday materials which are painted, texturised and cantilevered into positions of leaning into space.

Michael Armitage works make up a collection called Peace Coma. All the work was painted on Lubugo bark cloth and a video explains the laborious task of adapting this material ready for painting  or its traditional purpose of wrapping it around the dead ready for burial. His work is a powerful reminder of the political and cultural attitudes in Kenya society and constructs his work using western art history. For example ‘The Balcony’ , 2013 (private collection) is a reimagined Manet ‘The Balcony’ (1868) which  represents the cultural spirit of Modernity in Paris. Armitage work shows, not a fashionable middle class Flaneur but a lone Nairobi, lost in a world surrounded by advertisements; one being for M-PESA, a pioneered technology in Kenya to enable customers to make money transfers by phone. This work correlates with Phyllida Barlow ‘Towers of strength’ which is her rendition of a Balcony today. Where the Flaneur was represented by Gustave Coillebotte as looking out into Paris, The viewer being viewed while viewing is a cycle; of reality and imaginary. The creator of the scene but not creating the scene. Phyllida Barlows work is how the balcony today is just a phantom of a balcony, we see them everywhere in the city but they are no longer used or have been constructed aesthetically in a way so they will not be used, seen but not in use. A hint at a statement about society. Its extremely interesting that the image of a structure such as a balcony can have affiliations with such a variety of ideas.

I first saw the work by Phyllida Barlow at the ‘Entangled exhibition’ called ; untitled brockenshelf2015, 2015 made from timber, plywood, steel , fabric, PVAs, cement, tape, plaster , 120x300x110 cm. At first I was taken by the size and how far the messy colourful protruded into the room , almost like it shouldn’t have been there because it did look like something found in the bin after a carnival. I looked at this curiously , and if this was shown along side her other works such as untitled: holder 2014, it would have looked less bulky and roughly constructed and more playful. It was displayed next to the absolutely delicate floating works of Christiane Lohr. The contrast was very vivid and the reason was exhibiting the range of works created by women.

Barlow has always drawn and enjoys the freedom of Marks on the page, she has always worked these along side her sculptures but she tends to reuse her sculptures but her drawings date back to the 1960’s. In the exhibition you are able to see her progression through her drawings.

Barlow explains her progression of her later works;

…”trying to enjoy a lack of resolution, to enjoy a kind of sculptural sensibility”, and “just enjoying the quality of the paint, and moving it around on the paper”. (Exhibition notes)

References all cited on the 27th of August 2017

Tutor report reflection. P5. L1. pop

Another highly influential video tutorial with Diana Ali, She is the most efficient, effective and self driven person I know. 
The outcome of the report was;

 • New confidence in handling paint and interpreting my surroundings.

 • Worked with technical aspects to my advantage.

 • Showing an openness to new ideas and new mediums.

 Things to resolve before assessment;

 • The straw in Assignment 4/5 (1st attempt) needs to be attached in a different way to the board. It needs to be embedded with the composition.

 • Consider renaming your work, when you spell something out such as ‘Microbiology study’ the viewer becomes less engaged.

 • Need more studies to show creative thinking behind the exercises.

 • Keep questioning your own work and the work of others, If you don’t have the answers, that’s OK as it shows thinking about possibilities.

 • When being self critical, think about how that will move you forward, don’t be so negative in your blog (pessimistic).

 • Make blog images bigger and add in background images so it’s bright and colourful like myself.

 • Foe assessment; Lay out all work, pick out pieces that show a variety of techniques and breadth of skills.
Areas to reflect upon;

 • Assignment work 1-4 still quite flat with tonal qualities and light. Have focused more on the development of semi abstraction and techniques of working with other mater.

 • Assignment 2-3 are verging on being too easy to abstract and not connecting with the rest of the series. The balance of progression within a series of works, needs to consider the elements.

 • Assignment 5, final image has resolved the above concerns with layers of colours, texture, focal point and the size helps to balance the progression and give the work purpose. This envelopes an understanding of paint and gives a sense of a scene.

 • Writing is in-depth and a journey of progression has been documented well, self reflective throughout.

Alberto Burri- Artist that burns plastics

Yinka Shonibare- Textile artist.
My Thoughts

Really pleased I have been able to move away from pictorial representation but still able to convey a sense of place. I would like to build on the works I have created over the past 16 months with this new confidence. I am much more aware of what is required from me as a student and I must remeber to question certain directions so to gain more breadth of possibilities. Moving forward I would like to set up a Web site and Facebook page so to become more connected online, not just with other students but with a wider audience. I would like to exhibit some work but I don’t have enough commercial pieces yet so it would have to be a collaborative show. This stage of my art education and past retail management skills are sliding together like tectonic plates, I normally try to keep the two areas apart because I become overly influenced by the audience. 

Research- Anselm Kiefer (1945-)

HEAVY CLOUD by Anselm Kiefer (German, born Donaueschingen, 1945)
Lead and shellac on photograph, mounted on board
Dimensions: 23 3/8 x 34 1/2 in. (59.4 x 87.6 cm)
Classification: Drawings

The above image (as a link) is how Kiefer illustrates a message of contamination; the lead cloud is dripping shellac which drips down onto earth.  Heavy Cloud is transcribing the scientific process of heavy water which is created with heavy Hydrogen which enables neutrons to split uranium in a process of nuclear fission. In nuclear reactors, the splitting of uranium heats fuel, which can be used to produce electricity. Kiefer has questioned that even though lead is used “to seal radiation, as an envelope for this very dangerous stuff,” the possibility is; there is a risk of a radiation leak.

From My research I have found that Kiefer uses numerous materials or matter in his work and I wanted to know why?

Kiefer treats photography the same as non painterly materials such as straw, earth; lead ect. They are all redeemed as matter for the construction of his paintings or drawings like ‘Heavy Cloud’. My thoughts on this is; how do we classify work as photographs, paintings, drawings, collage, sculptures, ect?

Much of the writings are differentiating between Kiefer and Gerhard Richter as the two artists played a major role depicted the banished (therefore historical repression), the atrocities of a fascist regime associated with German History. Richter style and technique documents the mediation of dissociation from the horrors of the past and re-associate within another time with photographs, found media with regards to his ongoing work ‘Atlas’

Richter presents the past in a neat categorized package as seen with the work ‘Atlas’, he is representing historical experience and constructing conceptions of historical memory. If we see a subject/object in the form of a photograph, generally we believe it actually happened or was captured so was real, but also knowing it could have been taken out of its context, so there is a feeling of sceptic certainty.

Kiefer work is German Expressionism, its his own historical representation painted. Therefore the capacity of the medium of paint is being questioned, Can it really represent historical experience?

‘October 1977’ by Richter consists of 15 oil paintings taken from newspapers that reported on the suspected suicides of contained (by German state police) members of the red army fraction; A left wing terrorist group condemned for kidnapping and killing during the 1970’s.  These paintings are blurred, dark and haunting, they are expressive but have a documentary context. My thoughts are that the two mediums can coexist as forms to represent historical experiences. ‘The Death of the Author’ by Roland Barthes comes to mind when writing about perceptions.

“…the birth of the reader must be at the cost of the death of the Author” Barthes p.148.

All experiences are our own, to converse these experiences, then someone may be experiencing them passively , but they will never experienced what the self experienced. What ever form of expression is needed to create expression, for it to be successful , you need viewers, readers and generally someone else.  The authenticity of auratic originality or an object, or as a craft that generates a unique aesthetic experience that is in the form of Painting, is never questioned by Kiefer.

To understand the above works, the events of the past need to be acknowledged; German art in 1988 was a project of dismantling postwar historical repression. In the 1960’s , the differences culminated between the work of Richter and Kiefer. At this time, Nouveau realism and pop art were popular artistic practices and Richter wanted to place German painting somewhere in relation to these movements. Kiefer seems to denounce this affiliation and could be considered ‘anti-modernism’. Renationalise and re-regionalize culture production was another avenue taken at the time as the culture was subjected to the ideology of inherited destruction so to divert away from the historical atrocities associated with their race.

“…by the critique of the very idea that a model of national identity could be articulated by cultural production- that Richter and Kiefer can be situated”. Foster .P.613.

The two artists were considered mediators of Germans cultural progression. Kiefer addressed the legacy of German Nazi fascism and Richter incorporates events of German political life recent past as in the series of works- October 1977.


Art work accessed on 12/08/2017 The Met.

Art since 1900. Hal Foster, Rosalind Krauss, Yve-alan Bois and Benjamin H.D. Buchloh. Thames and Hudson Ltd publishing. London 2004

Image music text. By Roland Barthes. Published by Fountain press London. 1977

Link accessed on 12/8/2017. MOMA with reference to the art works mentioned by Richter; Atlas and October 1977.





Art residential project 

I have been fortunate to be part of an art project during the Ramsgate carnival. I attend an art club every Thursday called ‘carnival club’ which is paid for by Thanet council to help the community work towards a goal such as the local carnival which was yesterday, 23.7.2017. The leader of this club has been involved with carnivals around the world and has many connections with artists. She has arranged groups of artist to come and get involved with the ramsgate festival which runs from 22-30 July. One group are from Russia  ‘Cardboardia‘, they make interactive pieces from cardboard. I was connected with this group via the Facebook page for ramsgate festival and had to fill in a form to apply to be part of the Cardboardia team. Some of the volunteers are from all over England and are already artists working as museum curators and designers of props. They are all sharing a house together for the week and work everyday on making items for the festival, running workshops and participating in events. I was lucky to be invited to work on a project of making 30 fish from cardboard and then painting them and protecting them with varnish. At first I though this was a good way of introducing my painting practice with another project. My plan was soon challenged as the time limit to produce the 30 fish was only a day. I had to work all day and into the night and come back the next morning to varnish them. The working time directive is non existent within the artist in residence role. I had to adapt to the situation so cut out a very simple shape and then decided to use gouache as it was going to be quick to use and dry as I needed to paint both sides of the fish so that’s 60 fish in a few hours. I was not going to be able to paint them with enamel paint and marbleise them as I ORIGINALLY had planed. In the end, due to the lack  of  light in the hothouse / warehouse which has been temporary hired for this event, I opted for some simple fish bones and scales in black which I found on Pintress. When I came in the next day to varnish, one of the Russian artists were painting over the eyelashes because she thought they looked odd. I was disappointed as she apologised because she was interfering with ‘my art’. I explained that this is hardly ‘my art’ as it has no resemblance to my work as a practicing Artist and that the decorated fish are just that, decorated fish. When I went to varnish them with industrial varnish that the group had, it smeared the paint work and they fish become blurred versions of there former selfs. I left feeling like a compleat waste of space. My work, time and effort were not appreciated and I was unhappy that I may be valued as an artist by these blurred painted decorated fish. I went away questioning a lot about my practice, My age and my lack of experience within these situations of working with other artists. Normally I work on my own work along side others, But this is the first time I was working as a team and I felt very unworthy, a Junior, inexperienced and just not in the same area of expertise.  Will this hinder me or make me what to experience and challenge myself more?
On reflection, nothing went to plan on the day of the carnival as the wind bashed us all about and it started to rain so not many people came to participate, lots came to watch as we got blown about and bumped into one another while in the procession. The idea of the carnival is to deliver to the audience a visual statement that will sell them an idea. Ours was to show off our beautiful things we had created at the workshops run by the local arts centre in the hope that others sign up for these workshops. For Cardboardia, the procession was about enticing more people along to events which are being run during the festival. They have sound boxes which were created for carnivals and street promotions. These are hang around your neck and you turn a handle to start the music which is very connected with their work, it sounds traditional. like the cardboard they use which is a traditional material, not a modern material. The music sounds European so is associated with a more liberated audience. This is a niche area around Thanet as around 70% of the 69% of the voters, voted leave in the 2016 referendum. We certainly looked like we were having fun, much more fun than the girls marching for 2 hours. But I don’t think we connect with our audience or the majority of the audience. I don’t think art projects should be associated with these types of carnivals. Theses Carnivals are where each town enters a beauty pageant group and parades them on a float which is covered in netting to stop the pageants being hit by coins which the public would throw at them to show support. The groups are the finalist of girls that have sent pictures to people in a political status (mayors) that have no qualification with determining who is more beautiful than someone else. The Pageant ball is an expensive annual event which the council pays for via tax payers money. I question these pageants events and motives and wonder if we promoted a group of boys to be paraded around like this , if society would deem it appropriate. Do girls need to feel beautiful and Boys Handsome? Do we need to celebrate these qualities in traditional methods such as Beauty shows, Pageants and Carnivals ?

I think this proves my point about how we (in the arts) are not connected to our local community as they exhibit traditional values by supporting these misogynistic events. But how do we connect and encourage the local community to be part of an art group? I feel that the public are negative towards community groups that have no relevance to their lives. For example I can attend a popular school event such as a school camp out on the school field and a school picnic or a School summer fate. These are all popular events because they all share a purpose of engagement with their children with the people that teach them most the time. The Institution of the school has a profound effect upon the family unit. I don’t think the Art community wants to become an Institution, that’s an industry resembling  the Large galleries. But I want the art club community not to be such a niche area in Ramsgate. I want it to be accessible, enjoyable and sustainable. I hope we are able to arrange a feed forward meeting after the festival to discuss options for next years festival. I know we will be questioning our participation with the carnival.


Work station


Warehouse above the furniture storage.

Assignment 5 update

To be honest, I have got Lost in my work. I have been working with how different colours and types of enamel paint (work together or not work together) flow together, how fast they move along different surfaces and the quantity of paint needed to get a formation of paint that is dripable. The process has been very technical and absorbing, I have had to work in depth with a new medium in a dense space of time. Luckily the paint can dry much faster than Oil paint. This has caused variations in perception as the paint tends to crack if not enough oil mixed or to much oil . This cracked surface is interesting in itself so trying to recreate this again has been difficult. The variables and uncontrollably associated with using Enamel paint enforce a culture of accepting the inevitable, tolerating the accidents or as Pollock (1912-1956) said in his interview with William Wright in 1950.” …with experience-it seems to be possible to control the flow of the paint, to a great extent, and I don’t use – I don’t use the accident- cause I deny the accident.” Harrison and Wood. pg 585.

“Technique is just a means of arriving at a statement”POLLOCK p.586

The statement that I am making with this new found technique is of ‘letting go’ and ‘being free’ to work with the paint. In my earlier work I can see my battles with ;being restricted to paint a representation of nature, my environment as a subject and  following the classical tradition of obligation to the standards of painting. My statement is not about expressing my feelings in the form of Enamel Paint. I used my experience of the familiar surroundings of the Park to decided on what colours to pour onto the canvas as a way of transcribing the composition of the park. My technique is deconstructing previous paintings ( the more traditional compositions) of the park to simplified shapes of trees, lumps of park land and distant perspectives. I then decided what colours to add together and how much paint to use of each colour before poring it onto the canvas. Then I would wait to see the paints marble around each other and decide to move the canvas so to affect the marbling of the paint to allow more patterns to appear or start moving it directly with a cotton wool bud stick and dragging the paint to where I wanted it to go.

Before I worked on a canvas I did tester panel’s, These have been a fantastic resource and I return to them frequently when mixing the enamel paints. These panels also have other things stuck to the surface to analysis the reaction the paint has with textured grounds.

I had spent a few weeks mixing paint and experimenting with different grounds such as shaving foam, Grass, pva and sand, but felt I needed to focus on the completion of the immediate assignment. I stopped working with paint and started reading and taking notes which was a reinforcement of the experience of my practice. From my readings of Clement Greenberg(1909-1994), and Harold Rosenberg(1906-1978) I have realised the following;

  • The American action painters correlated with American politics at the time. The power granted to American after the 2 world wars was knowledgable world wide. The connotation value the Americans exchanged was ‘larger than life’, bold and liberalising. Similar values to the Abstract movement where artists were liberated  and free from traditional aesthetic values.
  • This Post war condition became a culture. Avant-gardism was about ideas, a subject matter, not content and not just creating vessels of communication.  Greenberg writes that Courbet is called the first avant-gardian  and Manet is responsible for the spectators attention given to the problems of the medium ; paint.
  • The concept of the arts intertwined with one another; for example the Impressionist suggested their images were like listening to Romantic music. Greenberg asks…, “Since art was the only validity left, what better subject was there for each art than the procedures and effects of some other art?”  The individual and the social. p. 563-568.
  • Music is a sensory experience, it conveys mood, it can be abstract of meaning and pure in form. “But the other arts can be also sensuous if only they will look to music, not to ape its effects but to borrow its principles as a ‘pure art’, as an art which is abstract because it is almost nothing else except sensuous.” Green berg p.565. The word ‘Ape’ is relating to others words , such as mimic, copy, impersonating.
  • The status of ‘pure art’ is a confusion as to prove purity we direct ourselves towards something primitive, childish and something less detailed. This is a process of differentiating and a way of becoming objective or taking sides. Greenberg wrote…”To prove that their concept of purity is something more than a bias in taste, painters point to Oriental, Primitive and children’s art as instances of the universality and naturalness and objectivity of their ideal of purity…” p.566 Picasso has a well known quote -‘ every child is an artist, the problem is how to remain an artist once we grow up.’
  • The impact of Abstract art is the explanation for its superiority, The historic point where art moved away from traditional naturalisation to form abstract, its conjunction is justified.
  • Pollock says in his interview p.583 that…”My opinion is that new needs need new techniques, and the modern artist have found new ways and new means of making their statements.” he later adds that modern day artist are living in an age of mechanical reproductions where nature can be captured by cameras, so the new work is about expressing an inner world, energy and the motion of other forces. The classic artist represented the world around them. The Modern artist is representing the effects of the world around them. The visual language it the same, the medium and technique has changed, But they were both expressing themselves.
  • Pollock works directly, no preliminary drawings, drawing is a direct practice.
  • A point made by Greenberg ;about abstract work within a square frame has a tendency to be seen more abstract as its not a realistic shape, interested me as much of my assignments were painted on square formats. On reflection I wonder if I knew subconsciously that I was working towards abstraction?


  • A final Quote from a book I have been reading about the capitalist markets and the  devastating effect they have on climate change. “In the experience ( the call centre business) of a system that is unresponsive, impersonal, centreless, abstract and fragmentary, you are as close as you can be to confronting the artificial stupidity of capital in itself.” Mark Fisher .p.64. The reason I mentioned this quote is that Greenberg asks in his essay that we have to assimilate abstract art and fight our way through it as to return to representation would be a disaster for painters. The message is that there is no way back (from a capitalist society and from abstract expressionism), we have to move forward into the unknown. This is my statement, Letting go of capitalist reform (work/job for jobs sake) and naturalisation representation in paint (art for arts sake). I have found this painting technique so valuable and I find myself wanting to surround myself with more of these paintings. They have petrified into valuable possessions, they make up for the loss of wealth which comes with being a full time student. 

Tester Panel



Capitalist Realism, Is there no alternative? by Mark Fisher. O BOOKS publishing 2009 Hants UK

Art in Theory 1900-2000. An anthology of changing ideas. Edited by Charles Harrison and Paul Wood. Blackwell Publishing 2003. Oxford UK.



Picture Consequences experiment

Picture consequences is an old game where you fold up a page into 3 equal parts and one person draws either a head, body or legs depending what part of the page they are required to draw on. Normally the previous drawer has left some sort of Mark so the next creation has a starting point. I was interested in this idea as I had read that the surrealist used to interact with this game while meeting in cafes.

I wanted to collaborate an Abstract library where the abstract works that I have practice with could be pulled together to create one piece of work. The idea occurred after the practice took place so I was not thinking about creating one large piece  of work at the time, I was thinking about the movement of the medium and the interaction it has when the fluid paint came into he environment of either water, glue, filler, wool, pencil shavings, LEGO bricks, sand, dried flowers, pepper,shaving foam and cleaning products.

The first experiment;t I cut 4 A2 pages into 6 5cm strips and laid them on the floor. These pages were worked on in the exercise, ‘dripping, splattering ; Jackson Pollock style’. I then weaved them together to create something else. I wanted to explore the concept of taking a piece of work and abstracting its form, Like Frank Stella with the work Kastura (p.445 The Art book).  The concept of deconstruction to reconstruct is another process in my abstraction technique practice showen in the following image.

The next series of work is pages from my workbook. I have worked with certain colours that I think Reflected the normal natural tones such as Greens, Red Browns and Blue with white. I have cut these pages into sections. So they will flap over to be part of another page and by doing so the possibilities of creating an abstract library where techniques can be seen together are assembled with the help of the game ; picture consequences.  Unlike the game where the page is divided up into sections of ; head, body and feet, its more suited to areas of foreground, mid ground and background, or no perspective at all but playing with the idea of textural Abstract works.


The art book. Phaidon press limited London 1994


P5;Research point. Abstract Expressionism.

Research the style of painting called Tachisme or Action Painting. Look at the work who developed this spontaneous style of painting such as Hans Hartung, Franz Kline and Jackson Pollock and others.

Hans Hartung

Tachisme is derived from the French word., tache: ‘spot’ or ‘Blotch’. It is associated with nuances such as ‘Art informal ‘(art without form) , ‘Art Autre’ (other art) and ‘lyrical abstraction’ and was popular in Europe in the late 1940’s-50’s. Tachisme was primary a French phenomenon with artists such as Fautrier, Mathieu and Wols leading the way. It has a style which is more suave, sensual and more concerned with beautiful handling than the work of the Abstract Expressionist, which can be aggressive and raw in comparison when reviewing the observable differences practiced within this particular painting movement. The word Tachisme was also used in the 19th century when referring to the Impressionists. (Chilvers P.615)


Action Painting is a type of painting where the act of painting is an event and may be more significant than the outcome of the act. The energetic gestural movements , the uncontrollable dripping, splashing and manipulating the paint towards a surface is carried out without preconceived ideas. It is misleading to attach this with Abstract Expressionism as it is considered part of this movement, but not all abstract expression is action painting. The action of the act is a moment where the artist is able to be free to express along with there creative instinct. Harold Rosenberg called it ‘not a picture but an event’. (Chilvers. P.7) It also has connotation links with American wildness or freedom,  in the above passage I mentioned the European equivalent (Tachisme) was much more suave than the madness of the American style. This wildness was an explanation of the artistic freedom being acted out as ‘action painting’. Pollock explains that when he works on such a large scale, that he becomes part of the painting, he doesn’t see where it starts and its ending, he is interacting with the paint and a surface, he is the applicator.  This is very similar to Monet’s practice, where he works very closer to the painting and is painting an impression of the light and the subject; the water lilies in paint on massive panels with large brush work. The difference is that Pollock works with gravity and conveys no subject and lays his surface on the floor where Monet is more traditional, conveying a subject such as light and works with his canvas in an upright position. They Both wanted to be part of the work. “I am in my painting, I’m not aware of what I’m doing. Painting has a life of its own. I try to let it come through. It is only when I lose contact with the painting that the result is a mess “. Pollock. Foster. P.350 Art since 1900.

As MoMA curator ,Ann Temkin explains about Monet’s water lilies, ‘All the normal markers, like the edge of the water or the sky or the distant trees, have disappeared, and you’re just right in the face of those water lilies and the surface of the water with the clouds reflected from above you become lost in this expanse of water and of light.

I wrote  ‘both artists wanted to be part of the work’ I am referring to a desire of escapism from reality. If we can recover our own surroundings with art, then reality becomes a form of art. This idea relates to the fable by Jorge Borges called ‘The exactitude of science’. Jean Baudrillard referred to this fable in his essay called Simulacra and Simulations (1988) . In this essay he describes a reality that is intrinsic with simulating a form of reality that it is no longer real. The fable explains that a map was drawn so detailed and proportionate that it covered the territory that the map was depicting, then generations later the map became weathered, some tattered ruins remain, still inhabited by animal’s and people. I am gesturing that many artists would be much happier if they could immense themselves in there creativities, their world and surround themselves with art. It would become their simulacrum, their reality.

Abstract Expressionism Born 1947;

Was a term coined later on in 1952, represented the fact of the groups very diverse talents under this term abstract expressionisms umbrella, homogenizing and unifying a cast of charters, whom are individual artist in there own style but all share a common longing to translate private feelings and emotions directly onto a surface without any figurative content. This need to express oneself with out the need to lean on nature for an opportunity to express themselves, anchoring there emotions on the figurative side. This letting go of a narrative and traditional forms of art, could have been categorized as decorative patterns.

‘…a horizontal antiform as an abstractness un-colonized by the vertical one’. Art since 1900. Hal Foster.p.359.

The idea that Pollock was an action painter created another dimension to artistry , not just the finished work but the process of creating was kept behind studio doors , not available to the public.

‘…consumers who appreciated artistic innovation as evidence of the natural creativity of the human spirits’. Art and Propaganda by Toby Clark. P.8.

During this period of time we see artists creating in a way that was opposing technology and the popularity of cameras. The need to paint reproducing natural forms was superseded by the reproduction of nature within a photograph. The Camera was automatic and so was a movement called automatism; a term is borrowed from physiology, where it describes bodily movements that are not consciously controlled like breathing. From <>

Artist such as Max Ernst, Joan Miro and Andre Masson were surrealist artist but practiced with methods of trance painting where they tried to stop there consciousness state intervene. This style of spontaneity as a concept is associated with the ideas of free will and was the ethos of Americanisation. The opportunity to be fortunate enough to make something that represents themselves , that issues entirely from their hands and minds , and which they can affix their names to is considered the role of an Expressionist artist. This again resonates alongside Impressionism, as suggested in the above text. An artist that expresses and an artist that creates a work that is a depiction of there perception, there impression. Unfortunately the Automatism became regarded as Autographic. Pollock’s work is very spontaneous but also recognizable as a Pollock. His work became known , hence his trademark or and artistic logo. It looked less spontaneous and less automatic and more conscionable. Abstract Expressionism became a paradox of itself. Robert Rauschenberg who attended Black Mountain college where many of the group had attended explained...’I was never interested in their pessimism or editorializing. You have to have time to feel sorry for yourself if you’re going to be a good Abstract Expressionist and I think I always considered that a waste’. Art since 1900. p.354.


Image 1- Han Hartung from the Tate web site on 26.6.2017>

Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artist by Ian Chilvers. Fourth edition. 2009 OXFORD university Press. Oxford.

Art Since 1900 by Hal Foster. Thames and Hudson publishers. 2004 London.

Art and Propaganda by Toby Clark . Orion Publishing. London. 1997.